( ISSN 2277 - 9809 (online) ISSN 2348 - 9359 (Print) ) New DOI : 10.32804/IRJMSH

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    1 Author(s):  MS. NITHYA R

Vol -  11, Issue- 9 ,         Page(s) : 79 - 93  (2020 ) DOI : https://doi.org/10.32804/IRJMSH


Manual scavenging is the manual removal of excreta from “dry toilets” (i.e.) toilet without modern flush system which is especially found in the Indian sub continent. Manual scavenging still survives in many parts of India without proper sewage systems. The Safai Karamcharis Act was passed in 1993 to protect the rights of manual scavengers and in the same year, the government of India enacted the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, which came into force from 1997. In 2013, the ‘Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act came into force. Manual scavenging is a caste based occupation, where the scavengers face severe discrimination and untouchability. They are exposed to the most virulent forms of diseases and are prone to lot of human rights violations and societal violence. Today even after 27 years of passing of the Act most of the manual scavengers are not aware of their rights or neither the Act. Even the laws already existing fail implementation and the plight of the manual scavengers still continues India.

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