( ISSN 2277 - 9809 (online) ISSN 2348 - 9359 (Print) ) New DOI : 10.32804/IRJMSH

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MIDDLE CLASS AND ITS ATTITUDE IN MUGHAL INDIA: A HISTORY FROM THE BELOW IN REFERENCE TO BIHAR

    1 Author(s):  TABISH HASHMI

Vol -  9, Issue- 11 ,         Page(s) : 184 - 189  (2018 ) DOI : https://doi.org/10.32804/IRJMSH

Abstract

In the present writing Middle class and its attitude in Mughal India: A history from the below in reference to Bihar a sincere endeavour has been taken to explore and unfold those pages of history which contain the myriad fact and facets of social history of the time. For a long time not only in India but also in the world, it was a fashion to view and study history as a subject of wars and the battles. Monarchs, Nobles, Warlords, Feudal lords, Conquerors, religions etc were the only character sand the subjects of history in those days. Gradually, in the 18thcentury, we find changes in the trend of history writings and many new elements found their entrance. It was a period of the beginning of the professional writings and the writers of this period were more concerned on topics like mercantilism, urbanism and industrialisation. The new approaches opened new vistas of the life and the society. The new trend also revealed the new facts, which are somewhat more significant.

1. S Hasan Askari, Medieval India, KBL Patna, 1976 p.34
2. Lewis and Maude,  The history of World, London ,1979,pp.40-47
3. Francois Bernier, in revised History of India V.A. Smith, New Delhi, 1983, p. 252
4.  W.H. Moreland, Inda at the death of Akbar, London, 1925 pp .26, 27
5. For Karl Marx, see New York Herald Tribune, June 25, 1853, reprinted in Articles on 
    India, Bombay, 1943.
6. W.C. Smith, London, 1949, pp.44-45
7. ibid,p.132
8. Moreland; A.l.Chicherov, Indian Economic Development in Sixteenth- Eighteenth
   Centuries, Moscow, 1971p.453
9. Irfan Habib, Potentialities of Capitalistic Development in the Economy of Mughal India
     Enquiry, New Series, vol. Ill, no.3, 1971, p.55.
10. Iqtidar Alam Khan,;The Middle Classes in the Mughal Empire, A Historical Study,
      English ed., Delhi, 1964,P.89
11. Satish Candra, Presidential Address, Medieval India Section, Proceedings of the
      Indian History Congress, 1968
12. Plaesert, Jehangir’s India, Cambridge, 1924.
13. Marshall, Q. Ahmed, CHOB II , KPJS, Patna, 1976, pp.98-101
14. Peter Mundy,  CHOB II , pp.202-203

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