( ISSN 2277 - 9809 (online) ISSN 2348 - 9359 (Print) ) New DOI : 10.32804/IRJMSH

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LITERACY AMONG SANTAL FEMALES IN RURAL JHARKHAND A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    1 Author(s):  SAMIR PRASAD

Vol -  14, Issue- 1 ,         Page(s) : 130 - 136  (2023 ) DOI : https://doi.org/10.32804/IRJMSH

Abstract

A plethora of literature is available on current status of literacy among Santal females in rural Jharkhand, however almost none of them give historical perspective to it. The following article traces growth of literacy among Santals from colonial period and explores the reasons that hampered the growth and also that have been beneficial. The article is based upon colonial ethnographic studies, census data, government policies and the fieldwork done in Charhi Panchayat of Hazaribag district in Jharkhand.

Roy, S.C. (reprint 2017). The Mundas and their Country. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House. p. 221. (Original work published in 1912). 
Archer, W.G. (1974). The Hills of Flute. USA: University of Pittsburg Press. p.55
Ibid. pp. 35-37.
Mukherjea, C. (reprint 2017). The Santals. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House. pp. 51-52. (Original work published in 1962)

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